The city of Varamin has more than 250 historical and tourist attractions of which Iran Cultural Heritage Organization has registered about 80 as of today. There are many souvenirs for buying in this city, and in addition to the fascinating monuments, the travelers can visit many religious pilgrimage sites. Many people believe that they can watch history and civilization in one place here in Varamin City.
Geography of Varamin
The city of Varamin is located 35 km southeast of Tehran. Varamin is limited to Pishawa and Pakdasht from the northeast, to Qarchak from the northwest, to Rey from the west, to Qom from the south, and to Semnan from southeast and east.
This city is located in the northern temperate region of the country and has a relatively warm and dry climate.
The height of Varamin is 918 meters above sea level. The average temperature in Varamin is 26.2 degrees Celsius. The average rainfall in different seasons of the year is 35 mm.
There are two ways to travel to Varamin:
- You can make a trip by car or by bus. Due to the proximity of this city to Tehran, you can reach the city in an hour from the center of Tehran by car.
- You can also use the Tehran-Varamin-Garmsar train.
Population and Economy of Varamin
The population of Varamin was 283,742 in 2016 according to the official census.
Its lands are very fertile and are suitable for agriculture. However, in some areas, instead of agriculture, there are firebrick kilns due to the presence of good-quality clay.
Varamin has a special place in Tehran province and even in the country for its agricultural, livestock, industrial and other products. Plastics, crystals, building stones, salambor, leather, food, and dairy products are among the products that the city economy relies on.
History of Varamin
According to Vendidad, the religious book of Zoroastrians, the old name of Varamin was Varna. The historical books consider the city the 14th state out of 16 states of Ahura Mazda. Although, others believe it dates back to the Sassanid and Parthian eras.
Some of the historical books estimate that the word “Varamin” is the variation of the word “Bahram”, as Bahram Gor sunk in the swamp of the Varamin desert. In the Avestan culture, the word “Varamin” means shelter, maintenance, and assistance. Therefore, this meaning matches with the word “Varamin” in various historical periods.
Historical Attractions inside the City
Friday Mosque of Varamin
Friday Mosque is one of the oldest buildings in Varamin. In addition, it is one of the oldest mosques in Asia and is considered one of the country’s 152 most impressive works. The construction of Friday Mosque dating back to the Ilkhanid period began at the time of Sultan Mohammad Khodabandeh (Oljeitu) and ended in 1326 AD.
Aladdin Tomb Tower
This monument is one of the national heritage sites of Iran. With a height of 17 meters, a bit farther from the Friday Mosque and at the north, Aladdin Tower consists of two parts with unique architectural detail.
Historical Attractions outside the City
This massive structure is located near the village of Jafarabad, northeast of Varamin. Iraj Citadel is on a rectangular plan and built with sun-dried brick and mud. It is one of the largest structures of this type in Iran.
Aliabad Icehouse is located at the entrance to Hessar Kouchak Village, south of the asphalted road and in the southeast of Varamin, about 17 km away from it. The entrance to the icehouse faces the north and has a crescent arch.
Hessar Kouchak Icehouse
This icehouse is one of the historical sites in the southeast of Varamin, located at the entrance to Hessar Kouchak Village. The icehouse is 17 km from Varamin. The construction of Hessar Kouchak Icehouse, mainly built with sun-dried brick and mud, dates back to the Qajar era.
Qasr-e Bahram Caravansary
Located 154 kilometers from Tehran and 3 kilometers northeast of Eynol Rashid Caravansary, Qasr-e Bahram Caravansary belongs to the Safavid era. It is also famous as Abbas Abad Caravansary. This structure has got four Eyvan, the rooms are located around the main building and the central courtyard and stables are at the back.
Eynol Rashid Caravansary
This monument is located in Kavir National Park, 2 kilometers from the Qasr-e Bahram Caravansary. Like the latter, it dates back to the Safavid era. There is a collapsed water cistern next to it. Furthermore, Eynol Rashid Fountain, a trough for animals, is located on the hill adjacent to the Caravansary.
Deir-e Gachin Caravansary
This monument, dating back to the Sassanid era and before, is located in the south of Varamin. It is also famous by other names such as Dezh-e Kord Shir, Deir-e Ajas, and Qasr ol-Ajas. What today has remained from Deir-e Gachin Caravansary is from the Safavid period, which has been fundamentally refurbished. In addition, there are 140 rooms for travelers, a mill, a mosque and an octagonal building for the accommodation of VIPs.
Bagher Abad Bridge
Located 25 kilometers southwest of Tehran, on the road of Tehran-Varamin, Bagher Abad Bridge is located on one of the distributaries of the Jajrood River. The bridge dates back to the Qajar era.
Yousef-e Razi Tomb Tower
Yousef-e Razi Shrine Tower is also famous as Yousef Razi tomb tower. The tower is very similar to the Seyyed Haroon Shrine in Saveh. This monument belongs to the son of a reliable Islamic hadith narrator who went to Ghazni for jihad, holy war.
The monument seems to have been constructed during the Ilkhanid era, the 14th century.
Seyyed Fatollah Shrine
According to the locals, this monument is located on the grave of Seyyed Fatollah. In his era, he was a moral advisor for the local people. His ancestors came from Mecca of Saudi Arabia to Rey and Varamin.
Varamin Sugar Factory
Leon Marcov, a famous Russian architect, constructed the building of the Sugar Refinery of Varamin in 1934. Iranian National Heritage Organization registered the monument in 2002 as a national heritage site.
Natural Attractions of the City
You can find plenty of beautiful spots in the nature around Varamin:
This village is an old village with traditional buildings in Javadabad, Varamin. It is a 30-minute drive away from the city of Varamin.
Khaveh has got a temperate climate and lush fields. It has also got several monuments such as a fortress, several shrines, water reservoirs, watermill, old baths, etc for those who are looking for Varamin tourist attractions.
This famous plain is located 40 kilometers southeast of Tehran and on the border of Dasht-e Kavir Desert of Iran. Due to its fertile soil, Varamin has attracted many people from ancient times and that is why it is full of valuable heritage sites. Therefore, we can compare the civilization of Varamin Plain with the plain where the Sialk mound of Kashan is located.
Pueenak-e Qarchak Village
To reach this village, you will pass a five-kilometer road, full of ash and willow trees, some of which date back to 400 years ago. In this village, there is a garden called Shazdeh Mirza Garden. Shazdeh Mirza was one of Mirza Kuchak Khan’s companions and as he seceded from opposition to Reza Shah, the king gave him the garden.
Kavir National Park and Kavir Protected Area
The wildlife of this park is rich in different species of wild animals. It is the residence of birds, reptiles and even amphibians. Asian cheetahs and tigers are among the most prominent species in the park. Also, various kinds of other animals live in this habitat.
Band-e Alikhan Wetland
The name comes from a small dam built with earth several hundred years ago in the south of Charmshahr, 35km south of Varamin. This wetland has become famous because of the small ponds formed behind small dams attracting huge colonies of migratory birds coming from the north of Iran and Siberia every year. They come and stop here during the autumn and winter seasons.